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1 September 2004 DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF PRESUMPTIVE PYELONEPHRITIS IN AN ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)
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Abstract

A 37-yr-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) presented with anorexia, restlessness, and dark-colored urine. Urinalyses showed hematuria, leukocyturia, isosthenuria, proteinuria, granular casts, and no calcium oxalate crystals. Bloodwork revealed azotemia. Urine culture revealed a pure growth of Streptococcus zooepidemicus resistant to sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim but susceptible to cephalosporins. A presumptive diagnosis of pyelonephritis was made based on bloodwork, urinalysis, and urine culture. The animal was treated with intravenous ceftiofur, and intravenous and per rectum fluids were given for hydration. The elephant's attitude and appetite returned to normal, the abnormal blood parameters resolved, and urinary calcium oxalate crystals reappeared after treatment, supporting presumptive diagnosis. Follow-up ultrasonography revealed an abnormal outline of both kidneys with parenchymal hyperechogenicity and multiple uterine leiomyomas.

Carlos R. Sanchez, Suzan Murray, Richard J. Montali, and Lucy H. Spelman "DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF PRESUMPTIVE PYELONEPHRITIS IN AN ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(3), 397-399, (1 September 2004). https://doi.org/10.1638/02-082
Received: 5 November 2002; Published: 1 September 2004
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