Iodine in the form of iodide is required for synthesis of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine in fish. Iodine chemical speciation in aliquots of raw artificial seawater mix was measured before, during, and after exposure for fixed time periods to air only and to concentrations of ozone required to achieve oxidation–reduction potentials typical of a protein skimmer (400 mV) and an ozone contact chamber (800 mV). Chemical species of iodine were also measured in tank water from a large, recirculating, ozonated aquarium system that has a low-grade incidence of thyroid lesions (e.g., thyroiditis, hyperplasia, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma) in its fish. With increasing exposure to ozone, concentrations of iodide and dissolved organic iodine (DOI) decreased, whereas iodate levels increased. As a result of exposure to 400 mV, iodide concentration dropped to less than half the amount found in raw artificial seawater mix. After exposure to 800 mV, initial iodide levels decreased by 67%, and DOI became undetectable, whereas iodate concentration increased by 155%, with no remarkable change in total iodine concentration. These results indicate ozone-induced conversions from iodide to iodate, and DOI to iodide or iodate (or both). Iodide and DOI were not detectable in the aquarium system's water samples. Ozonation of artificial seawater may alter the relative concentrations of iodine species in a closed tank system, so that iodide supplementation of the diet or tank water of captive teleosts and elasmobranchs living in ozonated seawater is advisable.
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Vol. 35 • No. 3