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1 June 2005 RENAL EVALUATION IN THE HEALTHY GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA IGUANA): ASSESSMENT OF PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY, GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, AND ENDOSCOPIC BIOPSY
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Abstract

Plasma biochemistry, iohexol clearance, endoscopic renal evaluation, and biopsy were performed in 23 clinically healthy 2-yr-old green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Mean (±SD) values for packed cell volume (30 ± 3%), total protein (62 ± 7 g/L, 6.2 ± 0.7 g/dl), albumin (25 ± 2 g/L, 2.5 ± 0.2 g/dl), globulin (37 ± 6 g/L, 3.7 ± 0.6 g/ dl), total calcium (3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/L, 12.0 ± 0.7 mg/dl), ionized calcium (1.38 ± 0.1 mmol/L), phosphorus (1.32 ± 0.28 mmol/L, 4.1 ± 0.9 mg/dl), uric acid (222 ± 100 μmol/L, 3.8 ± 1.7 mg/dl), sodium (148 ± 3 mmol/L or mEq/ L), and potassium (2.6 ± 0.4 mmol/L or mEq/L) were considered within normal limits. Values for urea were low (<1.4 mmol/L, <4 mg/dl) with 70% of samples below the detectable analyzer range. After the i.v. injection of 75 mg/ kg iohexol into the caudal (ventral coccygeal or tail) vein, serial blood collections were performed over 32 hr. Iohexol assays by high-performance liquid chromatography produced plasma iohexol clearance graphs for each lizard. A three-compartment model was used to fit area under the curve values and to obtain the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using regression analysis. The mean GFR (SD) was 16.56 ± 3.90 ml/kg/hr, with a 95% confidence interval of 14.78–18.34 ml/kg/hr. Bilateral endoscopic renal evaluation and biopsy provided tissue samples of excellent diagnostic quality, which correlated with tissue harvested at necropsy and evaluated histologically. None of the 23 animals demonstrated any adverse effects of iohexol clearance or endoscopy. Recommended diagnostics for the evaluation of renal function and disease in the green iguana include plasma biochemical profiles, iohexol clearance, endoscopic examination, and renal biopsy.

Stephen J. Hernandez-Divers, Scott J. Stahl, Nancy L. Stedman, Sonia M. Hernandez-Divers, Juergen Schumacher, Christopher S. Hanley, Heather Wilson, Anand N. Vidyashankar, Ying Zhao, and Wilson K. Rumbeiha "RENAL EVALUATION IN THE HEALTHY GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA IGUANA): ASSESSMENT OF PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY, GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, AND ENDOSCOPIC BIOPSY," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36(2), 155-168, (1 June 2005). https://doi.org/10.1638/03-120.1
Received: 16 December 2003; Published: 1 June 2005
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