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1 June 2010 Pharmacokinetics of Orally Administered Terbinafine in African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) for Potential Treatment of Aspergillosis
Ursula Bechert, J. Mark Christensen, Robert Poppenga, Hang Le, Jeff Wyatt, Todd Schmitt
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered terbinafine hydrochloride based on 3, 7, and 15 mg/kg single- as well as multiple-dosage trials in order to calculate dosing requirements for potential treatment of aspergillosis in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus). Ten adult African penguins were used in each of these trials, with a 2-wk washout period between trials. Mean plasma concentrations of terbinafine peaked in approximately 4 hrs at 0.11 ± 0.017 µg/ml (mean ± SD) following administration of 3 mg/kg terbinafine, while 7 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg dosages resulted in peak plasma concentrations of 0.37 ± 0.105 and 0.33 ± 0.054 µg/ml, respectively. The volume of distribution increased with increasing dosages, being 37 ± 28.5, 40 ± 28.1, and 52 ± 18.6 mg/L for 3, 7, and 15 mg/kg doses, respectively. The mean half-life was biphasic with initial terminal half-life (t½) values of 9.9 ± 4.5, 17.2 ± 4.9 and 16.9 ± 5.4 hrs, for 3, 7, and 15 mg/kg doses, respectively. A rapid first elimination phase was followed by a slower second phase, and final elimination was estimated to be 136 ± 9.7 and 131 ± 9.9 hrs, for 7 and 15 mg/kg doses, respectively. Linearity was demonstrated for area under the curve but not for peak plasma concentrations for the three dosages used. Calculations based on pharmacokinetic parameter values indicate that a 15 mg/kg terbinafine q24h dosage regimen would result in steady-state trough plasma concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (0.8–1.6 µg/ml), and this dosage is recommended as a potential treatment option for aspergillosis in penguins. However, additional research is required to determine both treatment efficacy and safety.

Ursula Bechert, J. Mark Christensen, Robert Poppenga, Hang Le, Jeff Wyatt, and Todd Schmitt "Pharmacokinetics of Orally Administered Terbinafine in African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) for Potential Treatment of Aspergillosis," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 41(2), 263-274, (1 June 2010). https://doi.org/10.1638/2009-0211R.1
Received: 16 October 2009; Published: 1 June 2010
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