Respiratory neoplasms are rare in birds. This report describes carcinoma of the bronchial epithelium in a red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) that presented with weakness and lethargy lasting 4 days that progressed to seizures. Grossly, the caudal air sac and coelomic cavity contained approximately 15 ml of dark brown cloudy fluid that displaced the intestines cranially. Nodular plaques were present on the viscera and air sacs. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed a mass that expanded the bronchial lumen and was composed of papillary proliferations of rows of small cuboidal epithelial cells that were small and uniform in size with a low mitotic index. Metastases were present on the surfaces of caudal air sac, kidney, and multifocal peritoneal surfaces of the coelomic cavity. Clinical signs were most likely the result of West Nile virus infection, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of brain tissue.
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