Phenobarbital has been the primary antiepileptic drug used in primates, but the dosage required for seizure control is frequently associated with significant side effects. Newer antiepileptic drugs and adjunctive therapies currently being used in human medicine provide additional options for treatment of nonhuman primates. This report describes different drug regimes used for control of epileptic seizures in apes at the Milwaukee County Zoo (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA), including the addition of acetazolamide to phenobarbital, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and the use of extended cycle oral contraceptives to assist seizure control in female apes with catamenial epilepsy.
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