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14 December 2012 PERIOCULAR ANTERIOR ADNEXAL ANATOMY AND CLINICAL ADNEXAL EXAMINATION OF THE ADULT ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)
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Abstract

Formalin preserved ocular-associated anterior adnexa tissues from five necropsied Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were dissected with attention to the palpebrae, conjunctiva, nictitating membranes, nasolacrimal ducts, and periocular glandular tissues. Gross and histologic examination revealed that lacrimal and tarsal glands were not present. Evidence of the lacrimal drainage apparatus, including lacrimal punctae or any remnant of lacrimal sacs, was also absent. In contrast, well-developed sebaceous glands associated with accessory hairs along the palpebrae were exceptionally abundant. Mixed-secreting accessory lacrimal glands were noted in the deep stroma posterior to the tarsus of both palpebrae and the gland of the nictitating membrane. Apparently, the Asian elephant has developed a novel tear system in the absence of lacrimal and tarsal (meibomian) glands. Clinical examinations and bacterial cultures of the visible periocular tissues were performed on eight living adult Asian elephants to confirm the postmortem anatomic findings and provide guidance to the clinician during examination of the elephant conjunctiva.

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Michael A. Wong, Ramiro Isaza, J. Kelly Cuthbert, Dennis E. Brooks, and Don A. Samuelson "PERIOCULAR ANTERIOR ADNEXAL ANATOMY AND CLINICAL ADNEXAL EXAMINATION OF THE ADULT ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43(4), 793-801, (14 December 2012). https://doi.org/10.1638/2011-0173R2.1
Received: 23 August 2011; Published: 14 December 2012
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