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14 December 2012 IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN CAPTIVE MALAYAN TAPIR CALVES (TAPIRUS INDICUS)
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Abstract

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was diagnosed in two captive female neonatal Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at separate institutions. Both calves had unremarkable exams and normal blood parameters within the first 3 days of life. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (hematocrit, HCT = 20%; mean corpuscular volume, MCV = 32.8 fl; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH = 10.5 pg) was diagnosed at day 66 of age in calf EPZ-1. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 71. A normal HCT (33%) with microcytosis and hypochromasia (MCV = 33.0 fl; MCH = 11.7 pg) was identified at day 80. No further concerns were noted through 610 days of age. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (HCT = 16%; MCV = 38.4 fl; MCH = 13.3 pg; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC = 34.6 g/dl) with thrombocytosis (platelets = 1018 103/UL) and poikilocytosis was diagnosed at day 38 of age in calf WPZ-1 by samples obtained through operant conditioning. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 40 and day 68. Improving hematocrit (32%) and low serum iron (45 μg/dl) was identified at day 88; total iron binding capacity (TIBC; 438 μg/dl) and percentage saturation (10%) were also measured. No further concerns were noted through day 529 of age. Retrospective evaluation identified presumptive IDA in two male siblings of calf WPZ-1. One calf died at day 40 (iron = 40 μg/dl; TIBC = 482 μg/dl; percentage saturation = 4%) and another at day 72 (HCT = 11%; iron = 26 μg/dl; TIBC = 470 μg/dl; percentage saturation = 6%). Death in both calves was attributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and bacterial septicemia. IDA can develop in Malayan tapirs between day 38 and day 72 of age and may be a significant precursor to bacterial septicemia and death in neonatal Malayan tapirs.

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Kelly E. Helmick and Victoria E. Milne "IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN CAPTIVE MALAYAN TAPIR CALVES (TAPIRUS INDICUS)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43(4), 876-884, (14 December 2012). https://doi.org/10.1638/2011-0174R.1
Received: 24 July 2011; Published: 14 December 2012
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