A captive 3-yr-old male dhole (Cuon alpinus) was presented for poor body condition. Pancytopenia concurrent with bone marrow aspiration that revealed severe medullary infiltration by a population of initially small lymphocytes was diagnostic of an aleukemic chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Chemotherapy was initiated, but euthanasia was elected after the animal's rapid deteriorating condition and sudden lymphoid organs hypertrophy several days after initial presentation. Histology revealed lymphoid organs and bone marrow infiltration by highly proliferating immature lymphocytes compatible with a blast crisis. On immunohistochemistry, neoplastic cells appeared CD3 positive, confirming a T lymphoid origin. This is the first report of a lymphocytic leukemia in a wild canid species.
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