Captive Eld's deer (Rucervus eldi thamin) were evaluated for the presence of rabies virus–neutralizing antibodies using a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition after vaccination with either a live canarypox-vectored recombinant rabies vaccine or a killed monovalent rabies vaccine. Twelve deer were vaccinated with 1.0 ml of killed, adjuvanted, monovalent rabies vaccine at 5–33 mo of age then annually thereafter, and 14 deer were vaccinated with 1.0 ml nonadjuvanted, live canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine at 3–15 mo of age then annually thereafter. Banked serum was available or collected prospectively from deer at 6 mo and 1 yr after initial vaccination, then collected annually. Rabies virus–neutralizing antibodies considered adequate (>0.5 IU/ml) were present in 20/34 samples vaccinated with canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine and in 12/14 samples vaccinated with killed adjuvanted rabies vaccine. Poor seroconversion was noted in deer less than 6 mo of age vaccinated with the canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine.
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