A near–full-term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. Within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. Both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex and medulla associated with protozoal tissue cysts. Protozoa in brain and kidneys were identified as Toxoplasma gondii based on immunoreactivity to T. gondii polyclonal antibodies that stain both tachyzoites and tissue cysts and BAG1 T. gondii antibodies that are bradyzoite specific. The tissue cysts exhibited intense positivity to T. gondii and mild immunoreactivity to Neospora caninum antibodies. The dam had a high antibody titer (1 : 12,800) to T. gondii and low titer (1 : 100) to N. caninum using their respective agglutination tests. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in alpaca.
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