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1 June 2015 PHARMACOKINETICS OF TRAMADOL AND O-DESMETHYLTRAMADOL IN LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLES (CARETTA CARETTA)
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of two orally administered doses of tramadol (5 and 10 mg/kg) and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol) (M1) in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). After oral administration, the half-life of tramadol administered at 5 and 10 mg/kg was 20.35 and 22.67 hr, whereas the half-life of M1 was 10.23 and 11.26 hr, respectively. The maximum concentration (Cmax) for tramadol after oral administration at 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg was 373 and 719 ng/ml, whereas that of M1 was 655 and 1,376 ng/ml, respectively. Tramadol administered orally to loggerhead sea turtles at both dosages provided measurable plasma concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol for several days with no adverse effects. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol remained ≥100 ng/ml for at least 48 and 72 hr when tramadol was administered at 10 mg/kg.

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Terry M. Norton, Sherry Cox, Steven E. Nelson, Michelle Kaylor, Rachel Thomas, Amy Hupp, and Kurt K. Sladky "PHARMACOKINETICS OF TRAMADOL AND O-DESMETHYLTRAMADOL IN LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLES (CARETTA CARETTA)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 46(2), 262-265, (1 June 2015). https://doi.org/10.1638/2014-0158R1.1
Received: 9 August 2014; Published: 1 June 2015
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