A 37-yr-old captive common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) developed lethargy and decline in mobility that progressed to death, despite supportive therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed severe, diffuse, intravascular and interstitial infiltration of neoplastic histiocytes in the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, lungs, large intestine, kidneys, and thyroid gland. Neoplastic cells were pleomorphic with marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, scattered multinucleated giant cells, numerous bizarre mitotic figures, and marked erythrophagocytosis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that neoplastic cells were positive for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (a histiocytic marker) and negative for CD3 (a T-cell marker) and myeloperoxidase, confirming the diagnosis of systemic histiocytic sarcoma.
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