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1 September 2016 XENOTRANSFUSION IN AN ISLAND FOX (UROCYON LITTORALIS CLEMENTAE) USING BLOOD FROM A DOMESTIC DOG (CANIS LUPUS FAMILIARIS)
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Abstract

Successful xenotransfusion in an island fox (Urocyon littoralis clementae) has not been previously reported but may be necessary in an emergency. An 11-yr-old male, intact, captive island fox was exhibiting clinical signs of rattlesnake envenomation including hypoperfusion, tachypnea, facial edema, and multifocal facial and cervical ecchymosis. Blood work revealed severe thrombocytopenia (18 K/μl) and anemia (Hct 15.8%). A presumptive diagnosis of rattlesnake (Crotalus sp.) envenomation was made. Initial treatment included oxygen therapy, fluid therapy, antibiotics, antacids, pain medications, and polyvalent crotalid anti-venom. Emergency xenotransfusion using whole blood (45 ml) from a domestic dog was used due to worsening clinical signs from anemia. No acute or delayed transfusion reactions were observed in the fox and the patient made a full recovery 5 days later. Successful xenotransfusion in an island fox using whole blood from a domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is possible and may be lifesaving.

Copyright 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Molly E. Martony, Kristian J. Krause, Scott H. Weldy, and Stephen A. Simpson "XENOTRANSFUSION IN AN ISLAND FOX (UROCYON LITTORALIS CLEMENTAE) USING BLOOD FROM A DOMESTIC DOG (CANIS LUPUS FAMILIARIS)," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 47(3), 923-926, (1 September 2016). https://doi.org/10.1638/2015-0053.1
Received: 9 March 2015; Published: 1 September 2016
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