Cardiac disease is a common condition in captive primates, and multiple cases in François' langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) were noted on review of the Species Survival Plan studbook. To determine the prevalence of cardiac disease in this species, surveys were distributed to current and previous holding institutions (n = 23) for the U.S. studbook population (n = 216). After exclusion of stillbirths (n = 48), animals less than 1 yr of age (n = 8), and animals housed internationally (n = 2), a study group (n = 158) was identified for this analysis. Robust data was received for 98.7% (n = 156) of the study group and antemortem and postmortem cardiac abnormalities were reported for 25.3% (n = 40) of these animals. Eight animals were reported as medically managed for clinical cardiac disease, and three of these were alive at the time of survey. Six of 11 animals with radiographic cardiac silhouette enlargement antemortem were noted with cardiomegaly on postmortem examination. Of 102 deceased animals in the study group, four were identified with dilated cardiomyopathy, and varying degrees of myocardial fibrosis was observed in 18 animals. Langurs with cardiac fibrosis were found to be significantly older than langurs without cardiac fibrosis (P = 0.003) and more commonly were male (P = 0.036). Screening tests for cardiac disease, such as thoracic radiographs and echocardiography, are recommended to diagnose affected animals earlier, to monitor progression of disease, and to guide treatment, although they should be interpreted with caution because of apparent insensitivity when compared with pathologic results.
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