Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and 90 Rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) at eight North American zoological institutions. Cataract prevalence in the Macaroni population was 46.5% (n = 74) of penguins and 42.3% (135/319) of eyes. Cataract prevalence in the Rockhopper population was 45.5% (n = 40) of penguins and 40.6% (73/180) of eyes. The mean age of Macaroni penguins without ocular disease was 7.4 ± 5.8 yr, while that of Rockhoppers was 9.8 ± 6.4 yr. Risk factors for cataract were examined through husbandry surveys completed by each institution and by evaluation of light intensity and ultraviolet (UV) light measurements acquired in each penguin exhibit. Risk factors associated with cataract in Macaroni penguins included age, dietary smelt, hand-feeding, and fluorescent exhibit lighting. Risk factors associated with cataract in Rockhopper penguins included age, dietary capelin, increasing population density, and increasing length of minimum photoperiod. Factors associated with decreased odds of cataract in Macaroni penguins included saltwater pool, monitoring of water quality for salinity, pH, and alkalinity; use of water additives; presence of pool filtration and sterilization systems; use of metal halide lightbulbs; increasing light intensity; and UV spectrum lighting. Factors associated with decreased odds of cataract in Rockhoppers included dietary herring and krill, increasing exhibit land area, pool temperature monitoring, increasing maximum photoperiod, and increasing minimum UV light.
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