Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) under managed care, and treatment failures with itraconazole due to drug resistance are increasingly common, leading to recent use of voriconazole. Empirical dosing with voriconazole based on other avian studies has resulted in adverse clinical drug effects in penguins. The objective of this study was to determine oral voriconazole pharmacokinetics (PK) in African penguins (n = 18). Single and once daily multiple oral doses of 5 mg/kg voriconazole were evaluated with a 4-mo washout period between trials. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data was modeled using 3-compartamental population methodologies that supported first-order elimination. Observed mean peak concentration (1.89 μg/ml) after single dosing PK analysis was determined within the first hour following voriconazole administration. In the multiple-dose trial average plasma voriconazole concentrations were significantly higher on days 4 and 7 as compared with day 2. The mean estimates for volume of distribution (V/F) and clearance (Cl/F) for the multiple-dose study were 3.34 L and 0.18 L/hr, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations determined the median area under the curve (AUC0–24) at 84 hr was 37.7 μg·h/ml. As this assessment was comparable with the average AUC in humans receiving the recommended human oral dosage 200 mg b.i.d., it suggests that 5 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. could be a safe and effective regimen in African penguins for treatment of aspergillosis. However, due to potential drug accumulation and subsequent toxicity, therapeutic drug monitoring with dosage adjustments is recommended to individualize dosing.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.