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1 September 2018 OUTBREAK AND TREATMENT OF CARP EDEMA VIRUS IN KOI (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM NORTHERN CALIFORNIA
Brittany N. Stevens, Adam Michel, Molly L. Liepnieks, Kirsten Kenelty, Sara M. Gardhouse, Joseph M. Groff, Thomas B. Waltzek, Esteban Soto
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Abstract

Carp edema virus (CEV) is the causative agent of carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also referred to as koi sleepy disease, which is an emerging disease of global concern that may cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in common carp and ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio). This article reports the third confirmed outbreak of CEVD in California. In June 2015, three koi presented with clinical signs of cutaneous lesions, severe lethargy, and signs of hypoxia. All fish tested positive for CEV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Euthanasia and complete necropsy were performed on two fish. The most significant necropsy findings included necrotizing branchitis with marked interstitial edema, multifocal cutaneous ulcerations, and severe cutaneous edema. Treatment of the pond with 0.3–0.5% salt was recommended to the owner. Approximately 7 wk later, a recheck visit was made to the pond. No mortalities had been noted since the initiation of the salt treatment. Physical examination revealed a vast improvement but not complete elimination of the clinical signs of hypoxia and intermittent lethargy in the affected fish. Gill biopsy samples from the two most affected fish were tested and remained PCR positive for CEV. Subsequent recheck visits over 11 mo postdiagnosis and initiation of treatment showed continued improvement in most fish. Gill samples from all fish in the pond (n = 9) were repeatedly tested by quantitative PCR for CEV, and all samples were negative. This case series further confirms the global spread of CEV and the need for practitioners to be vigilant for outbreaks of this disease. If CEVD is suspected, treatment with 0.3–0.5% salt can be recommended to potentially mitigate the effects of this disease. However, fish may remain potential carriers of this pathogen, and strict biosecurity measures should continue to be enforced for any pond that has had a confirmed CEV outbreak.

Copyright 2018 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Brittany N. Stevens, Adam Michel, Molly L. Liepnieks, Kirsten Kenelty, Sara M. Gardhouse, Joseph M. Groff, Thomas B. Waltzek, and Esteban Soto "OUTBREAK AND TREATMENT OF CARP EDEMA VIRUS IN KOI (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM NORTHERN CALIFORNIA," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 49(3), 755-764, (1 September 2018). https://doi.org/10.1638/2017-0189.1
Accepted: 1 April 2018; Published: 1 September 2018
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