Callitrichids are commonly exhibited species in zoological institutions. Retrospective mortality studies allow institutions to evaluate health trends in captive populations and have the potential to advance zoological medicine and husbandry practices. In this single institution, retrospective study, histopathologic records were reviewed for 166 callitrichids comprising six species. For all species and age-groups combined, trauma was the leading cause of death followed by enteritis and stillbirth. In adults and juveniles, the leading cause of death was enteritis, with neonates dying primarily from trauma. Neonatal mortality was high for most species, ranging from 12.5% to 60%, with most neonatal loss in Geoffroy's and pied tamarins. Twin births were commonly associated with neonatal mortality in most species. Intestinal adenocarcinoma was a common finding for adult Geoffroy's tamarin, and hemosiderosis was also identified in this species. Renal disease was a common finding in adult callitrichids and was the second most common cause of death in this age-group. Mortality in the juvenile period (>30 days–1 yr) was uncommon, comprising only 8.4% of the data set. Although capable of surviving into advanced age (>20 yr for one animal), the average age at death for all age classes was 3.84 yr and 9.31 yr for adults. This study contributes to the current knowledge regarding trends in callitrichid health and husbandry and can be used to investigate health trends in this group.
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