Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CP1, earlier called Feline panleukopenia virus) variants such as canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline parvovirus (FPV) are significant, emerging, multihost pathogens of domestic and wild carnivores. The diversity of CP1 variants was studied between 2008 and 2014 in Wayanad, India, where flagship wildlife species such as tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) coexist alongside domestic carnivores, including dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and cats (Felis catus). Using polymerase chain reaction, FPV and CPV sequences were obtained from the heart blood of a necropsied leopard individual for the first time in the world and from rectal swabs of three sympatric and clinically ill domestic dogs. CP1 amplicons were also detected in a tiger. Cross-species transmission possibilities were identified, as the closest relatives to the leopard FPV sequence were found in domestic cats from a neighboring state.
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