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9 January 2020 OPHTHALMIC EXAMINATION FINDINGS AND INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS IN SIX SPECIES OF ANURA
Jennifer C. Hausmann, Thomas J. Weaver, Kate S. Freeman
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Abstract

A complete ophthalmic exam, including intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, is key to diagnosing ocular diseases such as uveitis and glaucoma in frogs. We performed complete ophthalmic anterior segment examinations and IOP rebound tonometry measurements using two different settings (other “p” and canine “d”) for six anuran species. The objectives were to describe common ocular abnormalities found in these species, to compare IOP values between different tonometer settings, and to compare IOPs between species. Examinations revealed abnormalities including cataracts (11/98 total eyes), lenticular sclerosis (10/98) and lipid keratopathy (9/98). IOP was measured with the TonoVet® and the ranges (oculus uterque, OU mm Hg other “p” setting, canine “d” setting) were giant waxy monkey tree frogs (Phyllomedusa bicolor) (3.5–7.6; 6.5–11.7; n = 5), mission golden-eyed tree frogs (Trachycephalus resinifictrix) (7.0–9.7, 13.2–15.7; n = 6), boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) (0.8–5.5, 5.7–10.5; n = 13), Mexican giant tree frogs (Pachymedusa dacnicolor) (3.8–5.0, 8.3–11.8; n = 3), Lake Titicaca frogs (Telmatobius culeus) (8.8–10.5, 14.0–17.2; n = 8), and mossy tree frogs (Theloderma corticale) (9.7–11.0, 15.7–17.0; n = 5). The TonoVet canine “d” setting IOP measurements were statistically higher (P = 0.01) than the other “p” setting measurements for all species except the giant waxy monkey tree frogs. IOP was significantly lower for giant waxy monkey tree frog eyes with cataracts (P < 0.05) with the other “p” setting. IOP did not statistically differ in eyes with lenticular sclerosis. IOP can be measured by rebound tonometer in anurans, but more research is needed for species-specific references using consistent settings.

Copyright 2019 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Jennifer C. Hausmann, Thomas J. Weaver, and Kate S. Freeman "OPHTHALMIC EXAMINATION FINDINGS AND INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS IN SIX SPECIES OF ANURA," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 50(4), 845-852, (9 January 2020). https://doi.org/10.1638/2019-0115
Accepted: 9 September 2019; Published: 9 January 2020
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