Obstructive and incidental urolithiasis cases were evaluated in 5 Asian colobine monkey species (n= 21 individuals) that included 12 silvery langurs (Trachypithecus cristatus), 6 spectacled langurs (Trachypithecus obscurus), 1 Javan langur (Trachypithecus auratus auratus), 1 François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi), and 1 red-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix nemaeus) from eight zoologic institutions. All institutions that responded were Association of Zoos and Aquariums, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria, or World Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited. Males were more commonly represented in the total number of cases (86%), and all cases of obstructive urolithiasis occurred in males. The most common clinical signs observed in obstructive cases included stranguria (58.8%), lethargy (41.2%), anorexia (29.4%), depression (17.6%), and penile manipulation (11.8%). Clinicopathologic abnormalities revealed azotemia (76.5%), anemia (35.3%), and hyperkalemia (23.5%). Eleven of the 21 cases included urinalysis results, and crystalluria was reported in all 11. Obstructive cases were more commonly managed surgically, with medical management following. Instances of individual obstruction ranged from 0 (incidental finding) to 18, with a median of 8 (mean of 4.3) recurrent obstructions. A total of 39 urolith analyses were available from 17 of 21 cases, with calcium carbonate being the most common type isolated (37 of 39, 94.9%). Calcium oxalate was observed in the remaining 5.1% of cases (2 of 39). No cases exhibited a consistent match of crystalluria and urolith type. Death or euthanasia secondary to obstructive urolithiasis occurred in 52.4% of cases. Urinary obstruction secondary to urolithiasis appears to be a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in Asian colobine species, and further study into etiology and preventive medicine should be undertaken.
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