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Colura calyptrifolia is for the first time reported from Scandinavia, it was discovered in Femanger, Fusa municipality, Hordaland county. C. calyptrifolia was growing on an east to northeast facing cliff by a small brook. It was found mainly growing directly on the cliff, but small patches were also found on twigs of Lonicera periclymenum.
Frullania bolanderi is in Europe known from Norway, Sweden and Russia only. The ecology of F. bolanderi in 16 Norwegian localities is described in some detail, while its ecology in Sweden and Russia is given from literature. Frullaniabolanderi has a wide ecological amplitude growing on many different trees, often in shady ravines near streams and rivers, but sometimes in only slightly undulating forest, more rarely in an open landscape with scattered trees only. At the beginning of the year 2000 Frullania bolanderi was known from one locality in Sweden, three localities in Norway and about five localities in European Russia. However, during the years 2000–2013 numerous new localities were discovered and this hepatic is now known from about 150 localities in Norway [but only about 60 if merely localities more than 1 km apart are considered], three in Sweden and about 25 in European Russia. In the past F. bolanderi was considered as strongly endangered (EN) or critically endangered (CR) in Norway and Sweden, but the many new records have resulted in it being downgraded to a lower conservation category in Norway, i.e. vulnerable (VU) according to the newest Norwegian redlist. The plant is also a member of the European redlist, but should perhaps be removed from this list.
Eva Clausen was a Danish botanist, known for her experimental work with the tolerance of liverworts; many of her collections that contribute to the knowledge of liverwort flora of Denmark, the Faeroes and Greenland, were donated to herbarium C after her death. One of those are collections from her trip to the west coast of Greenland in summer 1955. Only an minor part of them were worked up by Eva Clausen herself, and she never published the results of her expedition. The author of ‘The liverworts of Greenland’ (2013), Kell Damsholt has identified ca 700 specimens and examined three note books written by Eva Clausen on the trip. He found about 80 taxa of hepatics in the collections. Most of the species collected by Eva Clausen are found within their known distribution range in Greenland. Though her collections of Lophozia rubescens R. M. Schust. & Damsh. from Frederikshåb, Egedesminde and Disko Island fill in the gab in the known species distribution (the species was known only from two localities in the southernmost Greenland and one on Disko Island). The collection of Apomarsupella revoluta (Nees) R. M. Schust. at Holsteinsborg is the southernmost on the west coast of Greenland and seems promising for future records from south Greenland, from where collections are missing, probably because of too few collections from areas close to the inland ice. The record of Cephaloziella grimsulana (J. B. Jack ex Gottsche et Rabenh.)Lacout. at Disko, God-havn adds to the distribution of this rather rare, northern species in Greenland and so does the record of Cephaloziella massalongi (Spruce) Müll. Frib. at Disko, Godhavn, Blæsedalen. A female plant of Odontoschisma elongatum (Lindb.) A. Evans was found at Disko, Godhavn, for the first time from Greenland.
Bazzania bhutanica N.Kitag. & Grolle, a critically endangered species previously known only from Bhutan, has been recorded for the first time in Indian bryoflora from West Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh. The species is characterized by typical ‘Acromastigum-like’ appearance, crenulate leaf and underleaf margins and 2–3-lobed underleaves.
Most species are assumed to have survived south or east of the ice sheet covering northern Europe during the last glacial maximum. Molecular and macrofossil evidence suggests, however, that some species may have survived in ice-free areas in Scandinavia. In plants, inbreeding and vegetative growth are associated with low genetic load and enhanced survival in small, isolated populations. These characteristics are often found in bryophytes, possibly allowing them to survive extreme conditions in isolated refugia and also within ice sheets. Here, we review the Holocene bryophyte history in Europe highlighting main glacial refugia and post-glacial colonization routes. Also, meta-analyses are performed to investigate if distribution ranges and genetic structure are associated with life-history traits. Bryophytes survived the last glaciation in several refugia, but there is no unequivocal evidence of survival within the Scandinavian ice sheet. Northern Europe was colonized from southern, eastern and western Europe, as well as North America. Species with small spores have broader distribution ranges than species with large spores, and high frequency of sporophyte production is associated with limited genetic differentiation between populations.
Three mosses, a basidiomycete fungus (perhaps Mycena) and seedlings (perhaps Epilobium) are reported as growing on dead ice of a glacier in southeastern Alaska. By far the most abundant species was Racomitrium fasciculare which appears to begin directly on the ice, and trapping mineral particles, grows up mostly into irregularly shaped patches but it can become more or less hemispheroidal on pedestals of ice. Many of the tufts of which there are thousands, develop to face southeast on tiny mounds of ice and protect the ice to the northwest. However, none appear to become ‘glacier mice’ (more or less spheroidal and lying loose on the ice surface). Sanionia uncinata invades the Racomitrium, as does Pohlia filum. The fungus and three seedlings also occurred only on the moss tufts. In its precise features and topographic situation, this beginning of plant succession on dead ice is of a classical Clementsian type and contrasts strongly with many of the other occurrences of mosses on glaciers in North America, Iceland and Svalbard.
The moss and liverwort flora of Zackenberg valley in the Northeast Greenland National Park has been studied based on field investigations and literature survey. Altogether 212 taxa are recorded in the area, with 43 liverworts and 169 mosses. Five taxa are reported as new to Greenland Lophochaete fryei (Perss.) R.M. Schust., Sphagnum orientale L.I. Savicz, Orthothecium lapponicum (Schimp.) C. Hartm., Pohlia vexans (Limpr.) H. Lindb. and Tortella alpicola Dixon. Additionally four taxa are reported as new to east Greenland; Grimmia plagiopodia Hedw., Riccardia latifrons (Lindb.) Lindb. Sphagnum olafii Flatberg and Tritomaria exsectiformis (Breidl.) Schiffner ex Loeske. The bryophyte flora of the Zackenberg valley is characterised by pioneer species adapted to disturbance by frost and wind, but also more stable communities exist especially at the lower part of the valley with wet to moist tundra. The Zackenberg valley bryophyte flora shows higher similarity with the flora on Svalbard (81%) compared with Ellesmere Island (67% and 60% for liverworts and mosses, respectively). This is consistent with east Greenland and Svalbard belonging to the North Atlantic Arctic flora province while Ellesmere Island belongs to the Canadian Arctic flora province.
This study provides information on the seasonal variations in storage compounds and enzyme activities related to these storage compounds in three species of the family Marchantiaceae: Marchantia palmata, M. nepalensis and Dumortiera hirsuta. Dumortiera hirsuta growing near water streams or hydric habitat shows higher carbohydrate as well as protein content and exhibits low seasonal changes as compared to M. palmata and M. nepalensis which grows in mesic conditions. In all the species the activity of (α-amylase, β-amylase and invertase were decreasing towards the end of the primary growth season due to carbohydrate accumulation in their thalli in this period. The relationship between protein and free amino acids (FAA) was found to be inverse. The activity of protease, which is associated with the metabolism of proteins, was noticed to peak in the rainy season.