Baker (1991) proposed that forest differences observed on either side of a fence were attributable to differences in grazing. The study location is in a subalpine forest on the Pike National Forest adjacent to the fenced boundary of Colorado Springs watershed land. Grazing on the watershed land has been excluded for over a century, and U.S. Forest Service land has had moderate grazing over the same time period. The Forest Service land supports a relatively dense forest comprised primarily of Pinus aristata. The watershed land has a less dense cover composed primarily of Picea engelmannii. Baker (1991) attributed vegetation differences to differential grazing pressure. Additional information suggests an alternate explanation for the vegetation characteristics of this site. In the 1930's, the Forest Service began a program of monitoring areas where trees had been planted or where forest health was a concern. Included in these photographic records is a 1960 photograph of the study area that documents the differences in forest type and cover are related to tree planting activities on the Forest Service side of the fence. The evidence that these trees are planted is based on the linear pattern of trees and a general map that shows where tree planting was done.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 55 • No. 4