To identify common and general environmental factors that affect the distribution of conflict-causing four animals, predictive distribution models and a predictive distribution map for central Japan were developed. A conditional autoregressive model was used to develop these models. All species avoided unforested areas and preferred farmland near the forest edge. Areas in which hard mast-bearing species dominate were preferred by wild boar, sika deer and Asiatic black bears; grassland was also preferred by wild boar and sika deer and Asiatic black bear. Densely populated areas were avoided by both ungulate species. In terms of climate factors, wild boar and Japanese macaques avoided areas with low winter temperatures, and wild boar, sika deer, and Asiatic black bears avoided deep snow. Preventing conflict-causing animals from using farmland is the most reliable method of restricting their distributions.
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Vol. 34 • No. 2