The Iriomote cat is an endangered subspecies (CR on the Japanese Red List) found only on Iriomote-jima Island in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. One of the main factors threatening the Iriomote cat is the main paved road that contributes to traffic mortality of this wildcat and also alters its preferred lowland habitats with abundant prey. One of the reasons why the Iriomote cat appears on the road may be due to the presence of prey; therefore, we investigated road use by this wildcat in relation to its prey. In 2009, scat surveys were conducted to assess road use by the Iriomote cat, and prey surveys were undertaken in the morning and at night, mainly targeting terrestrial frogs and reptiles. To analyse the importance of factors related to road use by the Iriomote cat, the influences of prey density along road types, habitat types, presence or absence of road construction activities, and survey regions on number of scats were examined using nested generalised linear models (GLM), assuming Poisson error and a log-link function. Diurnal lizard density was strongly correlated with scat along roads, and the density of road-killed Fejervarya sakishimensis was positively correlated with scat presence along roads.
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