We reviewed previous literature on primate crop feeding in Asia. We found 134 reports from 14 different countries and regions. More than half of the crop feeding cases involved macaques, followed by colobines, especially common langurs, and to a lesser extent by orangutans. No crop feeding by gibbons, lorises, or tarsiers has been reported. Most reports obtained information about crop feeding through interviews with locals and recorded the crops damaged and troop composition, while a few recorded the activity of the target primates and their population parameters. Crop feeding increased when the field was located near the forest, and when natural food availability decreased. Most farmers used non-lethal countermeasures, while some farmers killed the monkeys, and a few used electrical fences to protect crops. In study sites inhabited by multiple animal species, primates are often the worst crop feeders. Human perception and attitudes toward crop feeding primates were affected by income, residential area, religion, and history of crop feeding. Recent studies have created models based on previous data to clarify the potential risk of crop feeding and to predict the monkeys' ranging patterns. To create models for reducing crop damage and to design conservation strategies, collecting fundamental information is necessary.
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Vol. 46 • No. 2