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Prionailurus rubiginosus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1831), the smallest felid at nearly one-half the size of a domestic cat, is commonly called the rusty-spotted cat. One of five species in the genus Prionailurus, it is found in wet or dry deciduous forests as well as scrubby grasslands throughout Sri Lanka, India, and Nepal's western Terai. Habitat loss, road accidents, and the spread of agricultural cultivation are considered major threats throughout its range. Rare in captivity and museum collections, it is considered “Near Threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, with the Indian population listed under Appendix I and the Sri Lankan and Nepali populations listed with all Felidae under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.