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Sea turtle bycatch by commercial shrimp trawlers has been a primary threat to the U.S. marine turtle population for decades. In 1987 the U.S. government passed a federal bycatch regulation that requires all shrimpers to use ‘turtle excluder devices’ (TEDs) while fishing in U.S. waters. This article develops a theoretical model that serves to distinctly identify three ways in which the regulation affects domestic supply: i) directly through escapement when TEDs are used, ii) indirectly by affecting the fishers' choice of avoidance activities, and iii) through an effect on the equilibrium market price. We then empirically estimate the model. The results indicate that, over the 1989–2003 period, the total estimated harvest loss for the industry from TEDs was approximately equal to 2.04%, which is considerably lower than industry claims.
This study examined U.S. demand for salmon imports differentiated by source (Canada, Chile, and the rest of the world [ROW]), product cut (fillets and other salmon products), and form (fresh and frozen). The Rotterdam model was used in estimation, and source-aggregation tests were performed to determine the significance of source differentiation in analysis. We also performed separability tests to determine if import preferences were source-wise dependent or source independent. Test results strongly reject source aggregation; however, source-wise dependence could not be rejected. Furthermore, source-aggregated demand was significantly more price-elastic when compared to source-wise dependent demand. Results show that import preferences are not homogeneous across exporting countries, and there is significant information loss when source differentiation is not considered.
Despite the wide ranging applications of time series methodologies for stochastic processes, they have not been used for environmental economics (except climate change). To fill this gap, we introduce time series methodology for the environmental econometrics, presenting autoregressive, moving average, ARCH, GARCH, and ARMAX models. These models are applied to establish a functional relationship between pathogen indicator and meteorological and environmental variables using time series data associated with Huntington Beach, Ohio. According to ARCH, turbidity, dew point, flow, and rainfall are statistically significant variables. Other models produced roughly similar results because of the short lag order. Models confirm the lag order of one using Akaike, Schwartz, and Hannan-Quinn selection criteria, reflecting very short memory of the pathogen indicator series. However, the time series did not support GARCH variance structure. These models not only under forecasted observations at both ends of the distribution of the data, but also simultaneously underforecasted advisories.
In January 2009 a new management regime of individual vessel quotas (IVQs) was put in force in the world's largest fishery, the Peruvian anchovy fishery. Until 2009, the fishery was managed by a regulated open-access system with clear symptoms of the race for fish. We argue that the new regime has stopped the race for fish, reduced the number of vessels participating in the fishery, and prolonged the fishing season. Furthermore, the IVQs appear to have improved profitability in the fishery and increased value-added production in the Peruvian anchovy value chains. This provides support that developing countries with presumed weaker institutions can reap benefits of such management systems. However, there appears to have been setbacks in 2010, as the number of participating vessels has once again increased. This indicates that the institutions that regulate and monitor the fishery must be further strengthened.
We use telephone survey data on charter boat anglers to estimate demand models to value snapper-grouper and king mackerel bag limits in the North Carolina for-hire fishery. The telephone survey presents respondents with hypothetical situations about higher charter fees and lower snapper-grouper and king mackerel bag limits and asks about the number of trips they would take in each situation. Stated preference trip responses are used in a jointly estimated revealed and stated preference demand model. We find that reduction in the snapper-grouper bag limit from 15 to 7 fish would reduce the annual aggregate value of charter boat fishing by 29% due to quality effects. The reduction in the snapper-grouper bag limit would reduce the number of charter boat fishing trips by 25%.