Mountain Research and Development (MRD) (ISSN 0276-4741), online ISSN 1994-7151) is published by the International Mountain Society (IMS), c/o Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Hallerstrasse 10, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Institutional Members of the International Mountain Society (IMS)

SDC, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Bern

ICIMOD, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu

FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome

CONDESAN, Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion, Lima

CDE, Centre for Development and Environment, Bern

MRI, Mountain Research Initiative, Bern

UCA/MSRI, Mountain Societies Research Institute, University of Central Asia, Bishkek

ICAS, Interacademic Commission for Alpine Studies, Bern

CMS, Centre for Mountain Studies, Perth College, University of the Highlands and Islands, Perth, Scotland

DIG, Department of Integrative Geography, Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Bern

IMHE, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu

ARU, Afromontane Research Unit, University of the Free State, Phuthaditjhaba

ARCOS, Albertine Rift Conservation Society, Kampala

MRD collaborates with Mountain Forum (MF) and The Mountain Partnership (MP) to further the cause of mountains on the international development and research agendas.

Editorial Office

Thomas Breu, Editor-in-Chief

David Molden, Editor-in-Chief

Susanne Wymann von Dach, Associate Editor

Anne Zimmermann, Associate Editor

Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel, Associate Editor

Marlène Thibault, Assistant Editor

Production Editors at Allen Press

Martin Price, Book Review Editor

Honorary Board

Jack D. Ives (Canada)

Bruno Messerli (Switzerland)

Yuri P. Badenkov (Russia)

International Editorial Board

Irasema Alcántara-Ayala (Mexico), Ruchi Badola (India), Jörg Balsiger (Switzerland), Jill M. Belsky (USA), Astrid Björnsen Gurung (Switzerland), Peng Cui (China), Yayoi Fujita Lagerqvist (Australia), José M. García-Ruiz (Spain), Georg Gratzer (Austria), Andreas Heinimann (Switzerland), Thomas Hofer (Italy), Jacek Kozak (Poland), Hermann Kreutzmann (Germany), Joanne Millar (Australia), Esther Mwangi (Kenya), Marcus Nüsser (Germany), Stefano Pagiola (USA), Nadine Salzmann (Switzerland), Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt (Kyrgyz Republic), Hans Schreier (Canada), Eklabya Sharma (Nepal), Surendra Pratap Singh (India), Thomas Streifeneder (Italy), Rolf Weingartner (Switzerland), Jianchu Xu (China), Gete Zeleke (Ethiopia).

Representatives of IMS Institutional Members

Manfred Kaufmann (SDC, Switzerland); Eklabya Sharma (ICIMOD, Nepal); Thomas Hofer (FAO, Italy); María Argüello (CONDESAN, Peru); Thomas Kohler (CDE, Switzerland); Carolina Adler (MRI, Switzerland); Marc Foggin (UCA/MSRI, Kyrgyz Republic); Thomas Scheurer (ICAS, Switzerland); Martin Price (CMS, Scotland, UK); Chinwe Ifejika Speranza (DIG, Switzerland); Yanhong Wu (IMHE, China); Aliza le Roux (ARU, South Africa); Philbert Nsengiyumva (ARCOS, Uganda).

Publication Policy

Mountain Research and Development is published quarterly by the International Mountain Society and is freely available online and open access in collaboration with BioOne (

The journal is subject to the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( Ownership of the copyright in articles is retained by the authors, but anyone may read, download, copy, reuse, distribute, print, search, and link to the full texts of articles in MRD provided that the original authors and source are properly acknowledged and cited. For any reuse or redistribution of a work, the license terms under which the work was published must be made clear.

Print Version

The MRD Editorial Office supplies print-ready PDF files of individual articles or entire issues including covers for delocalized printing to Institutional Members of the IMS upon request. Authors and readers may produce their own printouts from the downloadable PDFs available at


MRD is indexed in the Science Citation Index, Current Contents/Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Sciences, Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, Geo Abstracts, C.A.B. International Series Checklist, AGRICOLA databases, Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts (MGA), CABS (Current Awareness in Biological Sciences), and others. MRD is also listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ProQuest, EBSCO, and Gale/Cengage Learning.


Please address correspondence to:

MRD Editorial Office

Centre for Development and Environment

University of Bern

Hallerstrasse 10

3012 Bern, Switzerland



Please note that all papers must be submitted online.


Please send material for “MountainMedia” to:

Martin Price

Director, Centre for Mountain Studies

Perth College, University of the Highlands and Islands

Crieff Road, Perth PH1 2NX, UK

Fax +44(0)1738-877 018


Back Issues

MRD is published online and open access in collaboration with BioOne. All back issues of MRD from 2000 onwards are available online and free of charge through BioOne; previous issues (1981–2000) are available online through JSTOR (, and single articles as well as entire issues may be purchased there.

For single hardcopy issue sales from Volume 20 through Volume 28, please contact

© 2017 International Mountain Society (IMS) for the journal

© 2017 Authors for the individual articles

© 2017 by the authors
"Publisher Information," Mountain Research and Development 37(4), 386, (1 November 2017).
Published: 1 November 2017
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