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22 April 2021 Rule-Violation in Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge is Predicted by Environmental Characteristics
Angela R. Soto, Benjamin P. Pauli
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Outdoor recreation in natural areas is a popular activity among people of various backgrounds. However, how recreationists use natural spaces has implications on the well-being of life in these spaces. Nonconformist behaviors, or actions that go against the rules or expectations of an area, are of special interest due to the higher potential for these types of behaviors to have harmful impacts on the ecosystem. Understanding the environmental characteristics that are predictive of nonconformist behavior can be especially valuable to land managers interested in curbing such behaviors in a targeted way. In this study, Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge in Wisconsin was surveyed with the objective of locating signs of nonconformist behaviors. Such instances were recorded using a GPS unit and analyzed using MaxEnt software to determine the extent to which environmental predictors influenced where these behaviors occurred, and to predict where in the refuge nonconformist behaviors are likely to occur in the future. Close proximity to trails and parking lots, along with the elevation in a given area, proved to be the factors that had the greatest influence on locations of nonconformist behavior. By determining the factors most associated with where people break refuge rules, these results can contribute to proper management strategies at Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge and other wildlife refuges.

Angela R. Soto and Benjamin P. Pauli "Rule-Violation in Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge is Predicted by Environmental Characteristics," Natural Areas Journal 41(2), 159-165, (22 April 2021).
Published: 22 April 2021

nonconformist behavior
recreation management
rule violation
Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge
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