The nesting behavior of Crabro monticola was studied at seven localities in upstate New York and northwestern Pennsylvania over seven years. More than 100 nests were observed, excavated, measured, and drawn. Contents were removed from the cells, analyzed, weighed, and identified. All nests were excavated in sandy soil near woodland in late spring-early summer. Prey were carried to the nests in flight mainly during the morning and, less so, late afternoon. A total of 11 families and 61 species of adult Diptera were preyed upon. Males of Hybomitra lasiophthalma (Tabanidae) were predominant prey at S Auburn, NY. Males of Thereva frontalis (Therevidae) were prevalent in cells at Chittenango and Colonie, NY. Individual burrows varied in length, but mean burrow length was similar at all localities except Selkirk Shores State Park and Colonie, NY. Mean cell depth was significantly different between most sites. Prey stored for next generation male wasps weighed, on average, only half as much as provisions stored for future female wasps. Female cells were located, on average, slightly deeper in the soil than male cells except at Chittenango in 1970. Individual flies varied considerably in size and weight at all localities. Mean number of prey per cell at S Auburn was significantly fewer than at Chittenango. Cell size correlated positively with aggregate prey weight. Flies bearing wasps' eggs were nearly always positioned head in and ventral side up. Mortality by mold, scavenging ants, and cleptoparasitic miltogrammine flies was negligible.
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