Few annual survival and capture-probability estimates exist for sittid and picid species common in North America. We used a mark—recapture study and robust design analysis in Program MARK to estimate annual survival rates based on a sample of 51 Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch), 12 Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker), and 15 Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) wintering in central Wisconsin, 2006–2013. Apparent survival probability was similar between the two woodpecker species (Downy Woodpecker: p = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.34–0.68; Hairy Woodpecker: p = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.36– 0.68). Apparent annual survival modeled as constant across time was low for both sexes of White-breasted Nuthatch (0.25 [CI = 0.12–0.44] and 0.28 [CI = 0.14–0.49] for males and females, respectively), but there was some evidence for annual variation in survival. All three species showed evidence for a trap-happy response in which recapture probability was higher than original capture probability, but it was stronger in the White-breasted Nuthatches than the two woodpecker species. There is little evidence of temporary emigration for any of the woodpecker taxa we studied. Our results provide baseline demographic data for these species in Wisconsin and will be useful in planning future trapping studies.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 21 • No. 3