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1 December 2015 Evaluation of a Formula that Categorizes Female Gray Wolf Breeding Status by Nipple Size
Shannon M. Barber-Meyer, L. David Mech
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Abstract

The proportion by age class of wild Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) females that reproduce in any given year remains unclear; thus, we evaluated the applicability to our long-term (1972–2013) data set of the Mech et al. (1993) formula that categorizes female Gray Wolf breeding status by nipple size and time of year. We used the formula to classify Gray Wolves from 68 capture events into 4 categories (yearling, adult non-breeder, former breeder, current breeder). To address issues with small sample size and variance, we created an ambiguity index to allow some Gray Wolves to be classed into 2 categories. We classified 20 nipple measurements ambiguously: 16 current or former breeder, 3 former or adult non-breeder, and 1 yearling or adult non-breeder. The formula unambiguously classified 48 (71%) of the nipple measurements; based on supplemental field evidence, at least 5 (10%) of these were incorrect. When used in conjunction with an ambiguity index we developed and with corrections made for classifications involving very large nipples, and supplemented with available field evidence, the Mech et al. (1993) formula provided reasonably reliable classification of breeding status in wild female Gray Wolves.

Shannon M. Barber-Meyer and L. David Mech "Evaluation of a Formula that Categorizes Female Gray Wolf Breeding Status by Nipple Size," Northeastern Naturalist 22(4), 652-657, (1 December 2015). https://doi.org/10.1656/045.022.0402
Published: 1 December 2015
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