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A native epiphytic moss (Dicranum montanum Hedw.) growing on the trunks of northern red oak trees (Quercus rubra L.) was utilized to biomonitor atmospheric deposition within a mixed-hardwood forest along a ridgetop in southwestern Pennsylvania. Factor analysis and analysis of means revealed a location-related chemical signature in the forest moss that was spatially associated with local industrial/urban emissions, and especially with the metals/transition metals As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This study documented the usefulness of D. montanum as a biomonitor for pollutant deposition, the utilization of epiphytic stem mosses in capturing stemflow pollutants, and provides a baseline dataset for monitoring relative changes in emissions/depositions in the study area.
Since 1996, Nova Scotia Plantwatch has collected earliest flower dates for 12 plant species at 200 sites in Nova Scotia. The initial results for 1996–1998 are compared with records collected by MacKay between 1892 and 1923. Although the Mackay data were from a colder climatic interval in the Northern Hemisphere, most flowering dates are not significantly different from the present warmer ( 0.5–0.7°C) period except during the 1998 season of record warmth. The only two species that showed significant differences are Epigaea repens and Syringa vulgaris. While E. repens showed significant later recent dates of first bloom, S. vulgaris showed earlier dates. Some of the variation within the province may be linked to oceanic influence; other variation reflects latitudinal gradients. These phenological results are compatible with other evidence that the average spring climate of the Atlantic Canada region has remained cool since 1948, but the early flowering in 1998 may be a response to a warming trend in the western part of the region.
The nesting behavior of >150 females of Episyron quinquenotatus was studied comparatively at eight localities in the northeastern United States from 1967 to 1993. The two major study sites, Presque Isle State Park, Erie County, PA, and Auburn, Cayuga County, NY, were investigated mainly during 1967–1969. Wasps nesting in sand at Presque Isle dug longer and deeper burrows more rapidly than females nesting in loamy fine sand at Auburn. Females at Auburn were smaller than those at Presque Isle and transported prey spiders mainly on the ground. The prey spiders at Presque Isle were often carried in flight by the larger wasps. Mechanics of nest closure sometimes differed between wasps at the two localities. Females captured six genera and nine species of orb-weaving spiders (Araneidae) at seven localities. Araneus patagiatus adult females, A. diadematus immatures, and Eustala anastera adult females were predominant prey at Presque Isle while Araniella displicata adult females and Neoscona arabesca adult females were prevalent prey at Auburn. Larger wasps laid larger eggs. There was a positive correlation between size of prey spider and size of wasp produced in the next generation. Females at Presque Isle sometimes completed two or, rarely, three nests per day.
Hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) whelp on the North Atlantic pack ice in early spring and then historically distribute as far south as Nova Scotia. Recent reports document increased sightings in the northern Gulf of Maine. To determine the number of sightings in the southern Gulf of Maine, we reviewed records of stranded hooded seals between Kittery and Rockland, Maine, for 1997–1999 and found 84 confirmed reports. The 1998 totals (43), exceeded those in 1997 (20) or 1999 (21). Most sightings occurred during the winter months, with six in the summer/fall of 1999. Thus, hooded seals are sighted in substantial numbers in both the southern and northern Gulf of Maine.
We investigated habitat preference of two Silphidae species (Nicrophorus investigator Zetterstedt and N. defodiens Mannerheim) occurring on a seabird island located off the southeastern shore of Newfoundland, Canada. Pitfall traps were placed in the nesting burrows of two seabird species: Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) located in grassland habitat and Leach's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) occurring in both forest and open meadow habitat. Nicrophorus investigator was primarily found in petrel burrows located in open meadow habitat, whereas N. defodiens occurred exclusively in petrel burrows located in forested habitat. Only a few specimens of N. investigator were collected from puffin burrows. These results show a spatial partitioning of resources between the two beetle species and suggest petrel burrows provide more abundant food sources than puffin burrows for burying beetles breeding on the island.
Caenestheriella gynecia, a poorly known species of the clam shrimp family Cyzicidae, is reported from New England for the first time. Two populations were monitored, along with water chemistry and vegetation features, in wooded ephemeral pools along abandoned roads in Berkshire County, Massachusetts from August through September, 2000. All animals collected alive and over 6 mm in length contained eggs. No male features were detected in any specimens. Field and laboratory observations revealed no copulation among individuals. All specimens conformed to the original description but demonstrated variability that extended across two recognized genera, Cyzicus and Caenestheriella.
Using data collected at 203 randomly selected lakes in eight states in northeastern USA, we present maps of distributions and native status for 28 fish species: 15 benthic species in five families, 11 small water-column feeders in six families, and two large piscivores. Brown bullhead and white sucker were among the most widespread lake-dwelling fishes, and were collected in 69% and 56% of the sampled lakes. Banded killifish, American eel, and yellow bullhead were collected in 26%, 19% and 17% of sampled lakes respectively. The remaining species were collected in <8% of the sampled lakes. Many of the species that were uncommon in this survey have limited distributions in the Northeast or are more commonly found in streams than in lakes. Seven species discussed in this article are Mississippian and were only collected in Cross Lake, NY. We also present a summary of the extent, geographic distributions, and native status of all 88 fish species collected in the EMAP – Northeast Lakes Project.
We report our observations of a large migratory flight of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) and dragonflies (Anax junius Drury, Tramea lacerata Hagen) in central New Jersey and review what is currently known about these migratory movements in eastern North America. The migration followed the passage of Hurricane Floyd, one of the strongest coastal storms to cross New Jersey during the twentieth century. Our observations suggest that weather conditions associated with this storm may have signaled the onset of the migration we recorded.
New provincial records in Canada are provided for Ceratophyllus lari Holland from Ram Island, in the province of Prince Edward Island, and from Cone Island, Ontario, in each case from nests of the Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson). The larva of C. lari was found to be morphologically indistinguishable from those of Ceratophyllus niger C. Fox and Ceratophyllus idius Jordan and Rothschild.