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Eight new species of Neotropical Zanthoxylum L. (Rutaceae) are here described based upon their morphological characters. Zanthoxylum amplicalyx Reynel, which belongs to Zanthoxylum sect. Tobinia (Desv. ex Ham.) Griseb., has the largest calyx segments for its section. The others, Z. brisoferox Reynel, Z. chocoense Reynel, Z. impressocordatum Reynel, Z. magnifructum Reynel, Z. mauriifolium Reynel, Z. sambucirhachis Reynel, and Z. tingana Reynel, belong to the most speciose section, Macqueria Comm. ex Triana & Planch., and are distinguished by a variety of characters. Zanthoxylum magnifructum has the largest fruits of any species in the genus in the New World. Of the newly recognized species, four have a geographical distribution in Ecuador, three in Colombia, and one in Cuba.
Cerastium kochianum Iamonico is proposed as a replacement name for C. arvense L. var. strictum W. D. J. Koch (published in 1838) when treated as a species, since C. strictum L., which refers to another taxon (i.e., Arenaria grandiflora L.), is an earlier and validly published name. Cerastium kochianum is related to C. arvense s.l., from which it differs mainly by characters of habit, stem, and leaves and a different chromosome number.
There are seven endemic species of Boswellia Roxb. ex Colebr. on Socotra Island, Yemen. Boswellia socotrana Balf. f. is a culturally, economically, and ecologically important species on the island. The name Odina aspleniifolia Balf. f. has been considered as a synonym, but there are morphological differences between the two taxa sufficient to justify their distinction at subspecific rank. Therefore, O. aspleniifolia is transferred to Boswellia as B. socotrana subsp. aspleniifolia (Balf. f.) Lvončik. A lectotype is designated for O. aspleniifolia. The distribution and ecology of both subspecies are discussed, as is their conservation status.
Silene lulakabadensis Heidari, F. Ghahrem. & Assadi is described as a new species from Zanjan Province, Iran. The new species is a dark green plant, perennial and woody at the base, that was collected on marl soil slopes at 2100 m. It is believed to be closely related to S. eriocalycina Boiss. from section Auriculatae (Boiss.) Schischk. but is a smaller plant, with much shorter internodes, and pinkish-white retuse to emarginate petals with very small or no scales. It is a very rare plant and its conservation status is assessed as Critically Endangered.
A new species of Cremosperma Benth. is described from Panama, bringing the total for the country to three. One species, C. maculatum L. E. Skog, occurs in the province of Chiriquí and also in Colombia and Costa Rica; the second, C. veraguanum Wiehler, occurs in the provinces of Bocas del Toro, Coclé, and Veraguas; and the new species, C. colonense L. E. Skog, Barrie & McPherson, has only been found in the province of Colón and is distinguished from the others by having larger leaves and corollas white with yellow in the throat. The new species is distinguished from C. ecuadoranum L. P. Kvist & L. E. Skog of eastern Ecuador by its branched habit, sericeous peduncles, the corolla white with yellow in the throat and a longer tube, and the usually longer calyx with wider lobes. Based on IUCN criteria, C. colonense is provisionally assessed as Endangered. A key is provided to the Mesoamerican species.
Chirita (?) lilacina Lem. is determined to be a species of the Neotropical genus Monopyle Benth., for which the combination M. lilacina (Lem.) L. E. Skog, Barrie & Boggan is proposed. Monopyle lilacina is native to the provinces of Chiriquí and Bocas del Toro in western Panama. A current description and distribution are provided for the species. Chirita lilacina and Gloxinia lilacina Lem., alternative names proposed by Lemaire, are lectotypified.
Gentiana trichostemma Wedd., which had been included in Gentianella nitida (Griseb.) Fabris, is restored to recognition as a distinct species, which differs from G. nitida in its longer stems, more distantly spaced leaves, and more deeply lobed corollas. The new combination Gentianella trichostemma (Wedd.) J. S. Pringle is made. The holotype of Gentiana trichostemma is shown to be a mixed collection and is herein restricted by lectotypification to the portion of the material that is consistent with the protologue. The name Gentianella andreae-mathewsii (Briq.) Zarucchi is lectotypified and is reduced to synonymy under G. liniflora (Kunth) Fabris ex J. S. Pringle. A second-step lectotypification is published for the name Gentiana liniflora Kunth.
Molecular studies have recently shown that a predominantly Mexican clade of Anthurium Schott species with ovate-cordate to ovate-sagittate leaf blades with glandular punctations on the lower (abaxial) surface is distinct from all other groups of Anthurium. This new section, Cordato-punctatum Croat & Carlsen, is one of three sections of Anthurium essentially restricted to Central America, and it contains six taxa. In this article, we describe and typify this new section, characterize its morphology, compare it to other Central American clades, and provide a current species list with geographic distributions.
Three recent phylogenetic studies have used DNA sequence data to examine evolutionary relationships in Amsinckiinae (Boraginaceae). In each of these studies, the genus Plagiobothrys Fisch. & C. A. Mey. has been recovered as non-monophyletic. So that only monophyletic groups are recognized, two new genus names are provided here: Amsinckiopsis (I. M. Johnst.) Guilliams, Hasenstab & B. G. Baldwin and Simpsonanthus Guilliams, Hasenstab & B. G. Baldwin. The new combination P. collinus (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. var. pringlei (Greene) Guilliams & B. G. Baldwin is given for plants from Arizona that were found to be phylogenetically nested within P. collinus. The genus name Sonnea Greene is lectotypified.
During a floristic survey of Araceae in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil, we found an intriguing, unknown species of Anthurium Schott with cordate leaves. Here, we describe and illustrate the new species, A. sagrilloanum Theófilo & T. F. Sagrillo, and also provide comments on its ecology and distribution.
Ardisia sharoniae Manjato, Ravololoman. & Razakamal. and A. vohimenensis Manjato, Ravololoman. & Razakamal. (Primulaceae) are described as new species from southeastern Madagascar, the former from the Ankarabolava and Agnakatrika forests (Atsimo-Atsinanana Region) and the latter from the Vohimena range (Anosy Region). They differ from the four currently recognized Malagasy species of Ardisia Sw. by their leaves with serrate margins and their striking angulate twigs. The two new species differ from one another in several characters of their leaves, inflorescences, and fruits. An illustration and a distribution map are provided for each species. Preliminary assessments of the risk of extinction following the IUCN Red List categories and criteria indicate that both are Endangered. An identification key to the seven species of Ardisia occurring in Madagascar is presented.