Two new species of Psidium L. (Myrtaceae) from Bahia, Brazil, are described and illustrated. Both are compared with P. cattleyanum Sabine, a possible close relative and a species with which they might be confused. Both species differ from P. cattleyanum because of their longer peduncles (2–8(–13) mm in P. cattleyanum, 10–22 mm in P. ganevii Landrum & Funch, and 12–34 mm in P. bahianum Landrum & Funch), and because the tears in the calyx do not, or scarcely, penetrate the staminal ring (in P. cattleyanum they deeply penetrate the ring). The leaf length of P. cattleyanum (to 10 cm) is intermediate between P. ganevii (to 4 cm) and P. bahianum (to 14 cm). The leaves of P. bahianum differ from P. cattleyanum in usually being ovate (not obovate), arching along the midvein, and often enfolding longitudinally; its leaf apices are usually acuminate and, when the leaf is pressed flat, often turn to one side. Psidium ganevii differs also from P. cattleyanum in often having emarginated apices; the leaves are often widest at the middle (not above the middle).
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