Nitidobulbon Ojeda, Carnevali & G. A. Romero, a new genus of the Maxillariinae (Orchidaceae), is described and illustrated. Its circumscription is supported by morphological, anatomical, and molecular evidence. The three species of Nitidobulbon are characterized by long flower peduncles, smooth, shiny pseudobulbs, and distinctive leaf anatomy. We present a taxonomic key to differentiate Nitidobulbon from related genera and also provide a key to the species within the genus. Three new combinations are established: N. cymbidioides (Dodson, J. T. Atwood & Carnevali) Ojeda & G. A. Romero, N. nasutum (Reichenbach f.) Ojeda & Carnevali, and N. proboscideum (Reichenbach f.) Ojeda & Carnevali. In synonymy to N. nasutum, the name Maxillaria oxysepala Schlechter is lectotypified.
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