Two new species of Orchidaceae from the Serra do Caraça, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are described and illustrated. Bulbophyllum carassense R. C. Mota, F. Barros & Stehmann is endemic to the Serra do Caraça and is epiphytic on trees or sometimes rupicolous. It is related to B. bidentatum (Barbosa Rodrigues) Cogniaux, B. filifolium Borba & Smidt, and B. plumosum (Barbosa Rodrigues) Cogniaux, all belonging to section Xiphizusa (Reichenbach f.) Cogniaux. A table comparing diagnostic characters for B. carassense with morphologically related species is presented. The second new species is Lepanthopsis vellozicola R. C. Mota, F. Barros & Stehmann, which is also rare and endemic to this region as an epiphyte on Vellozia compacta Martius, in campos rupestres vegetation. This is the only species in Lepanthopsis (Cogniaux) Ames with the following combination of characters: the secondary stems show only two evident internodes and are subtended by two leaf sheaths with smooth margins, and the lateral sepals are completely connate. A taxonomic key to identify the Brazilian species of Lepanthopsis is presented.
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