Pedicularis obliquigaleata W. B. Yu & H. Wang (Orobanchaceae) is described and illustrated from the Hengduan Mountains, in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. This new species was found in alpine meadows and along the edge of Abies Mill. forest. The new taxon is placed in Pedicularis ser. Dissectae H. L. Li and is similar to P. souliei Franch. from Sichuan Province. Pedicularis obliquigaleata differs by having densely gray pubescent stems; a pinnatipartite leaf with segments that are triangular-ovate to oblong-ovate with dentate margins; and flowers with two calyx lobes, a bent galea, semicircular beak, and a purple or rose-red corolla lower lip with a subtruncate middle lobe. Pollen and seed coat surface micromorphology of P. obliquigaleata were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the chromosome number and karyotype were determined as 2n = 16 = 2m 12sm 2st.
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