Two species of Marantaceae, Calathea matudae H. Kenn. & Ganders from Chiapas, Mexico, to Honduras, and C. sousandradeana H. Kenn. & Ganders from Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico, are described as new for inclusion in Flora Mesoamericana. Calathea matudae differs from C. atropurpurea Matuda in lacking reduced basal inflorescences, the bract acumen that is shorter and acute at the tip, the bracts that consistently dry brown, and the cross veins between the lateral veins of the leaves that are farther apart (15 to 20 per 5 mm vs. 23 to 30 per 5 mm in C. atropurpurea). Calathea sousandradeana differs from C. matudae and C. atropurpurea by the smaller, glabrous bracts with obtuse to rounded margins in the upper ones. A key is provided to the Mexican species in Calathea sect. Breviscapus Benth.
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