New combinations are made for 16 mostly Mesoamerican Cleomaceae previously included in the genus Cleome L., s.l., and one species transferred from Gynandropsis DC. These are now considered to belong in the genera Andinocleome Iltis & Cochrane, which is newly described herein, Mitostylis Raf., Physostemon Mart. & Zucc., Podandrogyne Ducke, and Tarenaya Raf., as follows: A. lechleri (Eichler in Mart.) Iltis & Cochrane, A. magnifica (Briq.) Iltis & Cochrane, A. pilosa (Benth.) Iltis & Cochrane, M. macrorhiza (C. Wright in Sauvalle) Iltis, M. procumbens subsp. obtusa (Britton) Iltis, M. procumbens subsp. wrightii (Urb.) Iltis, M. procumbens subsp. wrightii var. arenaria (Urb.) Cochrane, Physostemon humilis (Rose) Iltis, P. lanceolatum Mart. subsp. oaxacensis (Iltis) Iltis, P. lanceolatum subsp. paraguensis (Iltis) Iltis, P. stenophyllum (Klotzsch in Urb.) Iltis, Podandrogyne pulcherrima (Standl.) Cochrane, T. costaricensis (Iltis) Iltis, T. longipes (Lamb. ex DC.) Iltis, and T. parviflora (Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth) Iltis. Typifications are newly provided for Cleome pilosa var. costaricensis Donn. Sm. (lectotype), C. applanata Posada-Ar. (neotype), C. humilis Rose [≡ Physostemon humilis (Rose) Iltis] (lectotype), and C. stenophylla Klotzsch in Urb. [≡ Physostemon stenophyllum (Klotzsch in Urb.) Iltis] (lectotype).
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