The identity, circumscription, and nomenclatural details of some species of “traditional” Palicourea Aubl. and one section are studied here. The species belong to both subgenera of Palicourea. Three species are re-circumscribed, two names are lectotypified, four new nomenclatural combinations are published, eight species of Palicourea subg. Montanae C. M. Taylor are newly described, and several names are newly synonymized. In Palicourea subg. Palicourea: the new combination Palicourea paulina (Standl.) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria paulina Standl. and is an older name for Palicourea plowmanii D. R. Simpson ex C. M. Taylor. The circumscription and morphological characterization of Palicourea sect. Corymbiferae (Müll. Arg.) C. M. Taylor are expanded, nine species are included, and Psychotria L. sect. Regina Müll. Arg. is synonymized here. The name Psychotria corymbifera Müll. Arg. is typified. Palicourea quadrifolia (Rudge) DC. subsp. leticiana C. M. Taylor is recognized as a species that takes the name Palicourea lucidula Standl. The new combination Palicourea regina (Müll. Arg.) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria regina Müll. Arg. The morphology of Palicourea virens (Poepp.) Standl. is evaluated, and Palicourea quinata Suess. is synonymized here. In Palicourea subg. Montanae: Palicourea albocaerulea C. M. Taylor is newly reported from Honduras. The new species Palicourea betancuriana C. M. Taylor of northwestern Colombia differs from Palicourea standleyana C. M. Taylor by its longer calyx limbs and purple corollas. The new combination Palicourea ceriantha (K. Schum.) C. M. Taylor is based on Rudgea ceriantha K. Schum. and is an older name for Palicourea clerodendroides C. M. Taylor. The new species Palicourea foreroi C. M. Taylor of western Andean Colombia differs from Palicourea pyramidalis Standl. by its longer pedicels and corollas. The new species Palicourea hondurensis C. M. Taylor of Honduras differs from Palicourea albocaerulea by its short calyx lobes and usually longer stipule lobes. The new species Palicourea kahirica C. M. Taylor of western Andean Colombia differs from Palicourea lehmannii (K. Schum. & K. Krause) Standl. by its shorter corollas without abaxial horns on the lobes. The new species Palicourea lozanoana C. M. Taylor of eastern Andean Colombia differs from Palicourea denslowiae J. H. Kirkbr. by its laminar stipules, shorter calyx limbs, and corollas without abaxial horns on the lobes. The new species Palicourea murciae C. M. Taylor of Andean Colombia differs from Palicourea weberbaueri K. Krause by its dense velutinous pubescence and shorter corollas. The new species Palicourea parrana C. M. Taylor of eastern Andean Colombia differs from Palicourea petiolaris Kunth by its longer corollas. The new combination Palicourea sanchezii (C. M. Taylor) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria sanchezii C. M. Taylor. The new species Palicourea sancti-ciprianii C. M. Taylor of western coastal Colombia and northwestern Ecuador differs from Palicourea vulcanalis Standl. ex C. M. Taylor by its stipules with shorter sheaths and its smaller inflorescences.
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