Dactylocardamum polyspermum Al-Shehbaz, A. Cano & Trinidad, the second species of a previously monospecific Peruvian genus, is described and illustrated, its similarities to and distinguishing characters from the generic type, D. imbricatifolium Al-Shehbaz, are discussed, and the generic limits of Dactylocardamum Al-Shehbaz are expanded to accommodate the new species. The novelty is known from a single locality in Ancash Department, and its IUCN conservation status is determined as Data Deficient.
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