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20 December 2022 Gradual transitions in genetics and songs between coastal and inland populations of Setophaga townsendi
Madelyn J. Ore, Silu Wang, Darren E. Irwin
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Setophaga townsendi is a species of wood warbler (family Parulidae) in northwestern North America that has geographic structure in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes: while interior populations have differentiated mitonuclear ancestry from the sister species S. occidentalis, coastal populations have a mix of inland and S. occidentalis mitonuclear ancestries. This coastal to inland transition in genomic ancestry raises the possibility of similar geographic structure in phenotypic traits, especially those involved in mate choice. Using qualitative and multivariate approaches, we investigated whether there is a sharp transition between coastal and inland populations in both song and in nuclear DNA. We find there is a shallow geographic cline in Type I song but not in Type II song. Nuclear DNA shows a gradient between coast and inland. There is little correlation between variation in song and the isolation-by-distance pattern in the nuclear DNA. Learned songbird song is shaped by both genetic and cultural processes. There has been a debate on whether song learning promotes or slows down population differentiation. By comparing the within-species variation in song and genetic structures, we can expand our understanding of the dynamic interplay between mating signals and population differentiation.

LAY SUMMARY

  • Song and nuclear genomic data were collected across the entire range of Setophaga townsendi, a species known to have differences in genomic ancestry between coastal and inland populations.

  • Type I song—song thought to be used in courtship—shows greater geographic gradient than Type II song—song thought to be used in male–male competition.

  • Overall nuclear genomic variation follows an isolation-by-distance pattern between coastal and inland populations.

  • Despite geographic gradient in Type I song, some variants are shared over broad geographic distances.

Setophaga townsendi es una especie de Parulidae del noroeste de América del Norte con una estructura geográfica en los genomas mitocondrial y nuclear: mientras que las poblaciones del interior tienen ancestralidad mito-nuclear diferenciada de la especie hermana S. occidentalis, las poblaciones costeras tienen una mezcla de ancestralidades del interior y mito-nucleares de S. occidentalis. Esta transición de la costa al interior en la ancestralidad genómica plantea la posibilidad de una estructura geográfica similar en los rasgos fenotípicos, especialmente aquellos involucrados en la elección de pareja. Utilizando enfoques cualitativos y multivariados, investigamos si existe una transición brusca entre las poblaciones costeras y del interior tanto en el canto como en el ADN nuclear. Encontramos que hay una clina geográfica poco profunda en el canto Tipo I pero no en el canto Tipo II. El ADN nuclear muestra un gradiente entre la costa y el interior. Hay poca correlación entre la variación del canto y el patrón de aislamiento por distancia en el ADN nuclear. El canto aprendido de las aves está formado por procesos genéticos y culturales. Ha habido un debate sobre si el aprendizaje de los cantos promueve o ralentiza la diferenciación de la población. Al comparar la variación al interior de la especie en el canto y las estructuras genéticas, podemos ampliar nuestro entendimiento de la interacción dinámica entre las señales de apareamiento y la diferenciación de las poblaciones.

Madelyn J. Ore, Silu Wang, and Darren E. Irwin "Gradual transitions in genetics and songs between coastal and inland populations of Setophaga townsendi," Ornithology 140(2), 1-14, (20 December 2022). https://doi.org/10.1093/ornithology/ukac060
Received: 8 June 2022; Accepted: 22 November 2022; Published: 20 December 2022
KEYWORDS
ADMIXTURE
bird song
canto de ave
canto Tipo I
dialecto del canto
diferenciación de la población
estructura genética
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