Poisoning from eating clupeoid fishes such as sardines and herrings (Clupeidae) or anchovies (Engaulidae), termed clupeotoxism, is widespread in tropical and subtropical areas of the world but rare. A fatal case occurred in Kaua‘i in 1978 from the consumption of the Marquesan Sardine (Sardinella marquesensis). This species has been replaced in abundance in the Hawaiian Islands by another import, the Goldspot Sardine (Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus). Onuma et al. (1999) obtained the head of a specimen of this sardine that caused a fatality in Madagascar and found that it contained palytoxin. Because bottom sediment was detected on the gills and in the esophagus, they concluded that the fish is a bottom-feeder, and the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis siamensis, known to produce palytoxin, the toxic organism. The sediment on the gills was more likely the result of the fish being dragged over the substratum by a seine. The Goldspot Sardine feeds on zooplankton, not benthic organisms. Therefore, a pelagic dinoflagellate is the probable producer of palytoxin.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 59 • No. 1