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We provide a comprehensive compilation of 105 species of Aphidoidea adventive to the Hawaiian Islands based on literature records and a taxonomic analysis of available specimens. Seventeen species are recognized as new to the Islands. For each species information on synonyms, origins, distribution, and hosts is given. The average rate of introduction has been about 0.82 species per year. Approximately 35% of the species originate in East Asia, 35% from Europe and West Asia, and 21% from North America.
Manduca blackburni, commonly known as Blackburn's Sphinx Moth, is a federally listed endangered species restricted to localized habitats on three islands in the Hawaiian archipelago. Manduca blackburni was thought to be closely related to the widely distributed New World species M. quinquemaculatus, but this has never been formally tested, and shortly after its description, many authors dismissed it as a subspecies or form of M. quinquemaculatus. We used one mitochondrial gene, COI, and two nuclear genes, CAD and EF-1α (2,975 bp total), to examine the phylogenetic relationships between M. blackburni and putative sister species in the genus. The phylogeny resulting from two single-gene analyses (CAD, COI) and the concatenation of all three genes suggest that M. blackburniM. quinquemaculatus are sister taxa, and the monophyly of each species is supported with relatively high branch support under parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. Manduca blackburni and M. quinquemaculatus also differ in genetic distance for CAD and COI, and we therefore consider them separate species. Thus, our molecular results corroborate previous studies on the morphology of M. blackburni and retain the species rank of this taxon. Our results also indicate that one or more South American subspecies of M. sexta may merit elevation to species.
Genetic connectivity was studied in two scleractinian corals, Pocillopora damicornis (branching and broadcast spawner) and Pontes panamensis (massive and brooding type), along the Pacific coast of Mexico. Allelic diversity between adults and juveniles, the latter recruited after the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 1997–1998 event, was determined, and level of genetic connectivity among populations was assessed. There were no significant differences in allelic diversity between adults and juveniles from the same location. Seascape spatial genetic analysis suggested two or three clusters, depending on the species: (1) Bahías de Huatulco, (2) south of the Baja California Peninsula and Bahía de Banderas, and (3) locations in the Gulf of California. The most important barrier to gene flow was detected between Bahía de Banderas and Bahías de Huatulco and corresponds with a major coastal stretch of sandy beaches and lagoons. Moderate to high gene flow was found inside and at the entrance of the Gulf of California (Nem = 62–250), possibly favored by seasonal circulation patterns and sexual reproduction. In contrast, low gene flow was observed between southern populations and the rest of coastal Mexico (Nem < 1.7) based on high local recruitment and habitat discontinuity. A close genetic relationship of corals from the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula and severely damaged Bahía de Banderas coral communities confirmed that exchange of propagules could have taken place between the localities after the ENSO 1997–1998 event. Despite different reproductive strategies, both species showed similar patterns, suggesting the importance of surficial currents and habitat discontinuity to predict connectivity among coral reefs.
Little is known about density and structure of black coral populations of the continental Pacific coasts of Central and South America. Species diversity and ecology of the antipatharian fauna of Machalilla National Park (Province of Manabí, Ecuador) were surveyed using scuba, and two species, Myriopathes panamensis and Antipathes galapagensis, were identified. New information on the two species and their associated fauna was obtained through both underwater observations and laboratory analyses. Specific associations with stalked barnacles and parasitic zoanthids are described. An underwater visual census indicated that the black coral assemblage had a maximal density between depths of 15 and 30 m. Myriopathes panamensis commonly occurred below 20 m depth, and A. galapagensis was mainly recorded from deeper than 25 m depth. Surveyed sites were characterized by sparse rocks mixed with sandy patches, and occurrence of black corals was mainly related to availability of rocky substrate. With an average density of 0.5 colonies m-2, the shallow black coral community of Machalilla National Park is one of the densest in the world. Data from this study represent a clear baseline for monitoring of population dynamics of benthic organisms in an area subjected to periodic El Niño and La Niña events, which may greatly affect composition and abundance of the marine communities.
Anchialine pools, which are defined as land-locked mixohaline pools with tidal influence, are unique and increasingly rare habitats in the Hawaiian Islands. Particularly, anchialine pools in Manukā on the island of Hawai‘i are home to a diverse, rare, and unique assemblage of decapod crustaceans. Diurnal and nocturnal surveys of motile aquatic species were conducted across 81 anchialine habitats in the Manukā watershed to perform diel comparisons of species assemblages, richness, abundances, distributions, and hydrography. Nocturnal surveys revealed significant increases in abundances, distributions, and species richness throughout Manukā's anchialine habitats. Of particular interest are six native anchialine decapods, Halocaridina rubra, Metabetaeus lohena, Calliasmata pholidota, Antecaridina lauensis, Procaris hawaiana, and Palaemonella burnsi, that exhibited notable diel patterns in abundance and distribution. In addition, a recent new record of a caridean shrimp and two unidentified species were documented. Factors influenced by diel period (i.e., behavior of introduced predators and sun exposure) and various hydrographic and habitat characteristics were suspected to affect patterns in the biological parameters that were measured. The addition of nocturnal surveys can provide valuable biological information to anchialine habitat resource management that would not have been obtained with diurnal surveys alone.
Etrumeus makiawa is described as a new species of round herring from the Hawaiian Islands. Formerly identified as E. micropus (type locality, Japan), it is distinct from that species in having modally one fewer pectoral ray and 48–51 gill rakers, compared with 44–48 for E. micropus. Japanese and Hawaiian Etrumeus compose reciprocally monophyletic mtDNA lineages (d = 4.60%) with a long period of separation (ca. 2.3 million yr). This new Hawaiian endemic is also differentiated from E. acuminatus in California and Baja California, which instead has a count of 41–45 gill rakers, a larger maximum size (to 280 mm SL, compared with 198 mm for E. makiawa), and a clearly different mtDNA sequence (d = 2.20%). The northwestern Atlantic species, E. sadina (E. teres is a synonym), has 49–54 gill rakers and is genetically differentiated from all the other species considered here (d = 15.95% to 17.58%).