Thirteen living species of the genus Xestoleberis were found from 122 samples collected from the coast of Japan. Samples were mainly collected from algae, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, in the intertidal zone and the uppermost infralittoral zone. Seven species are new and are described herein; Xestoleberis ikeyai sp. nov., Xestoleberis kuroshio sp. nov., Xestoleberis magnoculus sp. nov., Xestoleberis notoensis sp. nov., Xestoleberis planuventer sp. nov., Xestoleberis ryukyuensis sp. nov. and Xestoleberis sesokoensis sp. nov. Xestoleberis sagamiensis Kajiyama, 1913 is redescribed. The thirteen Xestoleberis species studied in this paper are subdivided into three groups based on the morphology of their carapace pore-systems. This grouping is consistent with their estimated phylogeny. The grouping is supported by general carapace shape, morphology of muscle scars, male copulatory organ and “Differentiation of Distributional pattern of Pore-systems (DDP)” analysis, and is considered to reflect phylogeny. The geographical distribution of Xestoleberis around Japan is shown for the first time, and the distinctive distribution of species and groups, which correspond to marine climates, is clearly recognized.
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