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1 July 2000 Active Uptake of Drugs into Photosensitive Liposomes and Rapid Release on UV Photolysis
Roger H. Bisby, Carole Mead, Christopher G. Morgan
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Liposomes containing high concentrations of the anticancer drug doxorubicin, prepared by active-loading techniques, have been intensively investigated as potential agents for chemotherapy. The present study investigates the possibility of active uptake and photoinduced release of such solutes from liposomes incorporating a photoisomerizable lipid. The active loading of acridine orange and doxorubicin was investigated using liposomes containing entrapped ammonium sulfate. The liposomes were prepared with dipalmitoyl-l-α-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and a photochromic lipid, (1,2-(4′-n-butylphenyl)azo-4′-(γ-phenylbutyroyl))-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Bis-Azo PC), which isomerizes on exposure to near-UV light with resulting changes in membrane permeability to solutes. The rate of loading of the vesicles below the phase transition temperature of DPPC was investigated as a function of Bis-Azo PC and cholesterol concentrations in the liposome. The rate of doxorubicin uptake was found to be greatly decreased in the presence of cholesterol, while below 30°C the rate of acridine orange uptake was increased in the presence of cholesterol. On exposure to a single UV laser pulse, actively loaded acridine orange was rapidly released from liposomes containing Bis-Azo PC at a rate similar to that found for the indicator dye calcein. However while cholesterol had previously been shown to greatly enhance the rate of photoinduced calcein leakage, it had no significant effect on the rate of acridine orange release. After active loading into DPPC vesicles containing Bis-Azo PC, doxorubicin was also released after exposure to a single laser pulse, but at a rate slower than for acridine orange and calcein. The difference in behavior between these systems is ascribed to the interactions of acridine orange and doxorubicin with the liposome bilayer. Photoinduced release of pharmacologically active materials from sensitized liposomes might provide a useful adjunct or alternative to conventional photodynamic therapy.

Roger H. Bisby, Carole Mead, and Christopher G. Morgan "Active Uptake of Drugs into Photosensitive Liposomes and Rapid Release on UV Photolysis," Photochemistry and Photobiology 72(1), 57-61, (1 July 2000).<0057:AUODIP>2.0.CO;2
Received: 3 February 2000; Accepted: 1 April 2000; Published: 1 July 2000

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