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1 October 2001 Photophysical Characterization of Natural cis-Carotenoids
Per Ola Andersson, Shinichi Takaichi, Richard J. Cogdell, Tomas Gillbro
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By means of steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy we explore the photophysics of two lowest lying singlet excited states in two natural 15-cis-carotenoids, namely phytoene and phytofluene, possessing three and five conjugated double bonds (N), respectively. The results are interpreted in relation to the photophysics of all-trans-carotenoids with varying N. The fluorescence of phytofluene is more Stokes-shifted relative to that of phytoene, and is ascribed to the forbidden S1 → S0 transition, with its first excited singlet state (S1) lying 3340 cm−1 below the dipole allowed second excited singlet state (S2), at 77 K. For phytoene the S2 and S1 potential surfaces are closer in energy, probably giving rise to the mixed S2 and S1 fluorescence characteristics. The origin of phytoene fluorescence is discussed and is suggested to be due to the S1 → S0 transition; with the S1 state located 1100 cm−1 below S2 at 77 K. The dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield on temperature and viscosity shows that large amplitude molecular motions are involved in the radiationless relaxation process of phytoene. The transition dipole moment of absorption and emission are parallel in phytoene and nonparallel in phytofluene.

Per Ola Andersson, Shinichi Takaichi, Richard J. Cogdell, and Tomas Gillbro "Photophysical Characterization of Natural cis-Carotenoids," Photochemistry and Photobiology 74(4), 549-557, (1 October 2001).<0549:PCONCC>2.0.CO;2
Received: 19 January 2001; Accepted: 1 July 2001; Published: 1 October 2001

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